Below is a brief historical timeline of concrete,
|Reactions between limestone and oil shale during spontaneous combustion occurred in Palestine to form a natural deposit of cement compounds.|
|Egyptians used mud mixed with straw to bind dried bricks. Also furthered the discovery of lime and gypsum mortar as a binding agent for building the Pyramids.|
|Used cementitious materials to hold bamboo together in their boats and in the Great Wall.|
|Romans used slaked lime a volcanic ash called pozzolana, found near Pozzouli by the bay of Naples. They used lime as a cementitious material. Pliny reported a mortar mixture of 1 part lime to 4 parts sand. Vitruvius reported a 2 parts pozzolana to 1 part lime. Animal fat, milk, and blood were used as admixtures.|
|“Porticus Aemilia”, one of the largest buildings of ancient Rome was built using crushed stones.|
|Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome.
|The art of Concrete was lost after the fall of the Roman Empire.|
Moxon wrote about a hidden fire in heated lime that
appears upon the addition of water.
|John Smeaton, British Engineer, rediscovered hydraulic cement through repeated testing of mortar in both fresh and salt water.|
|Bry Higgins was issued a patent for hydraulic cement (stucco) for exterior plastering use.|
|James Parker from England patented a natural hydraulic cement by calcining nodules of impure limestone containing clay, called Parker's Cement or Roman Cement.|
|Louis Vicat of France prepared artificial hydraulic lime by calcining synthetic mixtures of limestone and clay.|
|Maurice St. Leger was issued patents for hydraulic cement.|
|Canvass White, American Engineer, found rock deposits in Madison, County, New York, that made hydraulic cement with little processing.|
|John Tickell and Abraham Chambers were issued more hydraulic cement patents.|
|James Frost of England prepared artificial hydraulic lime like Vicat's and called it British Cement.|
|Joseph Aspdin, bricklayer and mason in Leeds, England, patented what he called portland cement, since it resembled the stone quarried on the Isle of Portland off the British coast.|
|Erie Canal created the first great demand for cement in the US.|
|I. K. Brunel is credited with the first engineering application of portland cement, which was used to fill a breach in the Thames Tunnel.|
|Jean-Louis Lambot was the first to use reinforcing in boats.|
|William B. Wilkinson erected a reinforced concrete servants cottage.|
|Portland cement used in the construction of the London sewer system.|
|Joseph Monier patented a design for reinforced garden tubs, beams and posts.|
|The fist recorded shipment of portland cement to the US.|
|Francois Coignet, a builder in France, responsible for the first widespread use of concrete in buildings.|
|David O. Saylor established the first portland-cement plant in the US in Coplay, PA.|
E. Ward builds the first landmark building in reinforced concrete in Port
Chester, NY. Designed by Architect Robert
|Ward delivered a paper on the house to the Society of Mechanical Engineers.|
|Earnest L. Ransom patented a reinforcing system using twisted rods.|
|F. Ransome patented a slightly tilted horizontal kiln which could be rotated so the material moved gradually form one end to the other|
|Henri Le Chatelier of France established oxide ratios to prepare the proper amount of lime to produce portland cement. He named the components: Alite (tricalcium silicate), Belite (dicalcium silicate), and Celite (tetracalcium aluminoferrite). He proposed that hardening is caused by the formation of crystalline products of the reaction between cement and water.|
|Alvord Lake Bridge, the first concrete reinforced bridge was built in America. It was built in 1889 by Ernest L. Ransome, an innovator in reinforced concrete design, mixing equipment, and construction systems.|
|George Bartholomew placed the first concrete street in the USA in Bellefontaine, OH. which still exists.|
building using the Ransome system, was the first concrete skyscraper.
|Francois Hennebique patented the Hennebique system. He was responsible for the widespread acceptance of reinforced concrete.|
Edison was a pioneer in the further development of the rotary kiln.
Perre makes concrete an acceptable architectural material
Perre builds 25 bis Rue Franklin and the Theatre Champs Elysee.
|Ingalls building, probably the beginning of high-rise concrete const.|
|Portland Cement Association was founded.|
|The US Bureau of Standards and the American Society for testing Materials established a standard formula for portland cement.|
|Meis van der Rohe proposes concrete high-rises.|
|The tallest concrete building was built 230 ft., the Medical Arts bldg., Dallas.|
|The Church of Notre Dame du Raincy is a modern church built in 1922-23 by the French architects Auguste Perret and Gustave Perret. It is considered a monument of modernism in architecture, using reinforced concrete in a manner that expresses the possibilities of the new material.|
|Eugene Freyssinet develops successful pre-stressed concrete.|
|Eduardo Torroja, designed the first thin shelled roof at Algeciras.|
Torroja, designed the Madrid Hippodrome.
first major concrete dams, Hoover Dam
and Grand Coulee Dam, were built.
|Pier Luigi Nervi built the hangers for the Italian Air Force using thin shell construction.|
Lloyd Wright was the one of the first to exploit the cantilever at Fallingwater.
|Portland Cement Laboratories perfect air-entrained concrete.|
builds on Meis's ideas at the Johnson
builds the Guggenheim
made of reinforced concrete .|
|Felix Candela masters the concrete shell.|
|Felix Candela builds the restaurant at Xochimilco.|
|Executive House Hotel, Chicago, exceeds the Medical Arts record at 371 ft.|
|Le Corbusier builds La Tourette.|
|Bank of Georgia Building in Atlanta beats Executive House at 391 ft.|
|Le Corbusier builds the government complex at Chandigarh India.|
Goldberg's twin towers at Marina City marked the
beginning of the use of reinforced concrete in modern skyscrapers and set the height record to 588 ft.
|1000 Lake Shore Drive beats Marina City at 640 ft. 6000 psi concrete in the lower columns was used for the first time.|
|Place Victoria in Montreal, ht 624 ft. using 6000psi concrete columns.|
|First concrete domed sport structure, the Assembly Hall, was constructed at The University of Illinois, at Urbana-Champaign.|
|Lake Point Towers, 70 stories, 645 ft. 7500 psi concrete.|
|One Shell Plaza, Houston, ht 714 ft., using 6000 psi concrete.|
|Fiber reinforcement in concrete was introduced.|
|Water Tower Place, 859 ft., 9000psi concrete using superplasticizers.|
|Peak shipment of portland cement to the US increased to nearly 3 million barrels.|
|The "highest strength" concrete was used in building the Union Plaza constructed in Seattle, Washington.|
|Scotia Plaza Building, Toronto, 907 ft.|
|311S Wacker and Two Prudential Plaza in Chicago sets new height record at 920 ft.|
Twin Towers, 1476 ft.