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civil engineering
Epicentre of Earthquake 2005
Country Overview
  • Population: 162.42 million
  • Literacy Rate: 48.7% (% age 15 and over that can read and write) 
  • Affected Area Population: 5.7million (7 persons/HH)
Military Rescuing the victims
Earthquake Statistics
  • Dead: 73,000 persons?
  • This includes over 18,000 children 
  • Injured: 70,000 persons? 
  • Overall affected: 3.2- 3.5 million persons 
  • Without Shelter: 2.8 million persons (approx.) 
  • Without adequate food: 2.3 million persons 
  • Employment loss: 325,000 persons (30%) 
  • Housing : 400153 shelter units destroyed or seriously damaged.2.8 million persons without shelter
  • Education : 4844 destroyed 2647 damaged 
  • Health : 455 destroyed 119 damaged 
  • Roads : 4429 km damaged (37%)
A child happy after receiving clothes
The Nation's Response
  • Nation united in response to the natural disaster.
  • All segments of the society donated in cash and kind.
  • For the first time there is a strong demand from/awareness amongst members of the civil society for national/regional/local disaster mitigation and management strategies. This has presented new opportunities to mainstream disaster Risk Mitigation and Management in all programmes.
Damaged building
Significant Causes of Infrastructure Damage

Engineered (Institutional Buildings)  
  • Quality of construction and construction materials
  • Lack of seismic considerations 
  • Lack of monitoring
  • Building codes ( dichotomy)
  • Governance weakness
Damaged building
Non-Engineered (Private Buildings/Homes)  
  • Lack of awareness about seismically resistant design
  • Siting of structures 
  • Aspiration to modernize with insufficient knowledge of safe construction
  •  Cost
Opportunities
  • The donor agencies (World Bank/ADB/JICA et al) as part of the Damage and Need Assessment report have highlighted the need for Hazard Risk Management as an important cross cutting issue.
  • This is the right time to start building a culture of resilience and safety in all tiers of the society. 
  • There needs to be a sustained effort to advice and strengthen the potential programmes of the government in multi hazard risk management.
Recommendations (learning from the disaster) 
  • Increase public awareness about hazard risk management.
  • Urgent need for de-centralised Disaster Management Plan which decentralise Disaster Response Mechanism to the District/Town Nazims (mayors) 
  • Build capacity of professionals and government officials.
  • Safe building practices and earthquake resistant design.
  • Develop and enforce simple building codes for rural and peri-urban areas. Vigilance in monitoring to ensure adherence to safe building codes.
  • Introduce effective communication mechanism amongst stakeholders. 
  • Develop a preparedness program to minimize damage in case of future natural disasters. 
  • Develop a school Earthquake Safety Programme.
  • Build in Environmental issues as integral part of all sector re-building plans (200 million tons of rubble/debris), forest, eco-system








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