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Introduction to Concrete Admixtures

ASTM C 125 defines an admixture as a material other than water, aggregates, hydraulic cements, and fiber reinforcement that is used as an ingredient of concrete or mortar and added to the batch immediately before or during mixing.
An admixture can be defined as a chemical product which, except in special cases, is added to the concrete mix in quantities no larger than 5 % by mass of cement during mixing or during an additional mixing operation prior to the placing of concrete, for the purpose of achieving a specific modification, or modifications, to the normal properties of concrete.

Admixtures may be used in solid or liquid state. The latter is usual because a liquid can be more rapidly dispersed in a uniform manner during mixing of concrete. The admixtures can be added to the concrete at the plant during the mixing or at the job site before placing the concrete in form.

ACI Committee 212 lists 20 important purposes for which admixtures are used, for example, to increase the plasticity of concrete without increasing the water content, to reduce bleeding and segregation, to retard or accelerate the time of set, to accelerate the rates of strength development at early ages, to reduce the rate of heat evolution, and to increase the durability of concrete to specific exposure conditions, and to overcome certain emergencies during concrete operations.

The effectiveness of an admixture depends on several factors including: type and amount of cement, water content, mixing time, slump, and temperatures of the concrete and air. Sometimes, effects similar to those achieved through the addition of admixtures can be achieved by altering the concrete mixture: reducing the water-cement ratio, adding additional cement, using a different type of cement, or changing the aggregate and aggregate gradation.

Benefits of Admixtures

The reason for the large growth in the use of admixtures is that they are capable of imparting considerable physical and economic benefits with respect to concrete. These benefits include the use of concrete under circumstances where previously there existed considerable or even insuperable difficulties. They also make possible the use of a wider range of ingredients in the mix.

Admixtures, although not always cheap, do not necessarily represent additional expenditure because their use can result in concomitant savings, for example, in the cost of labour required to effect compaction, in the cement content which would otherwise be necessary, or in improving durability without the use of additional measures.

It should be stressed that, while properly used admixtures are beneficial to concrete, they are not remedy for poor quality mix ingredients, for use of incorrect mix proportions, or for poor workmanship in transporting, placing and compaction.

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