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Project Management Artifacts

Most projects, to be successful, must adequately document objectives and deliverables. These documents are a mechanism to align sponsors, clients, and project team's expectations.
·        Project Charter
·        Business case/Feasibility Study
·        Scope Statement / Terms of reference
·        Project Management Plan / Project Initiation Document
·        Work Breakdown Structure
·        Change Control Plan
·        Risk Management Plan
·        Communications Plan
·        Governance Model
·        Risk Register
·        Issue Log
·        Action Item List
·        Resource Management Plan
·        Project Schedule
·        Status Report
·        Responsibility assignment matrix
·        Database of risks
·        Database of lessons learned
·        Stakeholder Analysis 

Project Charter
A Project Charter is a document that formalizes the request from a sponsor for responding to a business need. It is a clear statement of project intent, and it provides a preliminary delineation of roles and responsibilities. The Project Charter is issued by the sponsor, and it outlines the project objectives, identifies the main stakeholders, and defines the authority of the project manager. It serves as a reference of authority for the future of the project. The Project Charter sets boundaries for the scope of the project. It formally recognizes the existence of a project. It should be issued by the project sponsor, and at a level appropriate to the needs of the project. It provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
The Project Charter is usually a short document that refers to some other more detailed documents, such as a New Offering Request or a Request for Proposal. Some project managers have never had a Project Charter, or if they did, they might have known it by some other name. Though in IPD, this document is known as the Project Charter, in CRM, it is known as the Project Definition Report. Both IPD and CRM require this document as part of the project management process. If the sponsor does not follow either process, it is good project management practice to insist upon the creation of a Project Charter. As a last resort, if you as the project manager cannot get someone in authority to write the Project Charter, it might be advantageous for you to write it and submit it to the sponsor for approval.
The Project Charter is an important tool for establishing the authority assigned to the project manager, especially in a matrix environment. It is considered industry best practice, and it is a defined WWPMM work product. The purpose of the Project Charter is to document the:
·        Reasons for undertaking the project
·        Objectives and constraints of the project
·        Directions concerning the solution
·        Identities of the main stakeholders

Scope Statement
"The scope statement provides a documented basis for making future project decisions and for confirming or developing common understanding of project scope among the stakeholders. As the project progresses, the scope statement may need to be revised or refined to reflect approved changes to the scope of the project." (As defined in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) 2000 Edition)

Responsibility Assignment Matrix
Responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is typically used to link activities to resources to ensure that the scope's components are each assigned to an individual or team (Source: "Project Management Institute").
One type of RAM is based on the RACI format (Responsible, Accountable, Consult and Inform). This type of RAM is called a RACI chart, because it assigns the role that the resource is to play for each given activity. These charts can be constructed at a high level (general areas) or at a detailed level (low level tasks). A table is drawn, usually with Activities on the vertical edge (Work Breakdown Structure or WBS) and Resources on the horizontal edge (Organization Breakdown Structure). Not every resource will have an entry for every activity. As an illustration, please consider this simple chart:





Two other RAM versions are the RACI-VS format, adding the additional roles of Verifies and Signs, and the RASCI version, adding the additional Supportive role.
A responsibility matrix can also be known as a linear responsibility chart and can be used to show that is responsible and at what level. For example each row could represent a task and each column a person, the boxes could then be completed with the letters P (Prime support), S (Support) and N (Notify).
LRC is often referred as the responsibility assignment matrix (RAM). It identifies the participants, and to which degree each activity will be performed and/or decisions will be made.

Project Management Plan:-
The project management plan is a document that describes the project management system used by a project team. The project manager creates the project management plan following input from the project team and key stakeholders. Best practice is to get approval by key stakeholders and team members. The project management system includes the set of tools, techniques, methods and performance measures and procedures used to manage the project. The PMI-Project Management Institute's "A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Third Edition" (2004) on page 33 has a description of the project management plan and system. Many large consulting and professional project management firms require a formal project management plan approved in the early stages of the project.

Feasibility Study:-
A feasibility study is a preliminary study undertaken to determine and document a project's viability. The results of this study are used to make a decision whether to proceed with the project, or table it. If it indeed leads to a project being approved, it will
·        Before the real work of the proposed project starts
·        Be used to ascertain the likelihood of the project's success.
It is an analysis of possible alternative solutions to a problem and a recommendation on the best alternative. It, for example, can decide whether an order processing be carried out by a new system more efficiently than the previous one. A feasibility study could be used to test a new working system, which could be used because:
·        The current system may no longer suit its purpose
·        Technological advancement may have rendered the current system redundant
·        The business is expanding, allowing it to cope with extra work load
·        Customers are complaining about the speed and quality of work the business provides
·        Competitors are now winning a big enough market share due to an effective integration of a computerized system
Within a feasibility study, six areas must be reviewed, including those of Economics, Technical, Schedule, Organizational, Cultural, and Legal.
·        Economic feasibility study
·        Schedule Feasibility study
·        Organizational Feasibility study
·        Cultural Feasibility study
·        Legal Feasibility study
·        Marketing Feasibility study

About the Author

Faisal Aman He is B.Sc in Mechanical Engineering from "University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Pakistan"

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