Environmental issues play a major role in the planning, design, construction, and rehabilitation of highways. Indeed, their prominence has grown as the public has become increasingly informed on environmental issues and associated requirements. This chapter provides an overview to lend guidance in understanding environmental issues, and information to aid in the process of effectively addressing the various requirements in this area. It begins with an overall review of the numerous federal laws and regulations that must be considered. A thorough discussion is provided of the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act and the preparation of environmental impact statements. Information is presented on the important topics of storm water pollution prevention and lead-based paint removal and containment. The chapter concludes with a discussion of resource recovery and the use of waste material, including the recycling of hazardous wastes.